Alzheimer's Overview

Over 46 million people globally have Alzheimer’s disease. This is projected to reach 75 million by 2030, and 131 million by 2050. Without new drug therapies, the economic and healthcare cost burden of dementia - including Alzheimer's disease - is estimated to exceed $1tn per year in the next decade* [World Alzheimer’s Report 2015].

Alzheimer’s – a highly complex disease with risk factors based in genetics, lifestyle, age, and environment – has seen no new approved drug therapy since 2003; and clinical trial failure rates run at over 99%. Cytox aims to improve clinical trial outcomes through patient stratification and the genetic characterisation of Alzheimer’s disease.

Cytox approach - Polygenic Risk Scoring (PRS)

Cytox is a world-leader in developing and commercialising polygenic risk scoring (PRS) algorithms to characterise an individual’s genetic risk for developing Alzheimer's disease. A polygenic risk score, also called a polygenic score, genetic risk score, hazard score or genome-wide score, provides a probability of a disease trait arising, based on multiple genetic loci and their associated disease-causing weights.

Cytox’s products to characterise Alzheimer’s disease assess several hundred thousand  single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to generate a PRS that provides a probability, as determined by an individual’s genetics, of disease occuring, and projected timings for the onset of disease.

Cytox's approaches are being actively evaluated today by global pharma, biotech and sponsors of larger cohort studies as a more rigorous and cost-effective means to improve stratification of at-risk subjects for participation in clinical trials.


genoSCORE™-LAB is a new non-invasive test that can predict the risk of an individual developing Alzheimer’s disease from a simple saliva sample.

Initial applications will be for physicians assessing new patients, with cognitive complaints, to assess their future risk of cognitive decline due to Alzheimer’s disease. It can also provide greater insight into the risk of cognitive decline in existing patients.

Additionally, genoSCORE-LAB will be used in clinical study recruitment strategies to identify patients most suitable to enter trials of investigational Alzheimer’s drugs, including those patients with mild cognitive decline who are most at risk of subsequent decline within the timescale of the study.

genoSCORE-LAB only requires a blood or saliva sample. An easy-to-use mouth swab enables elderly and vulnerable patients to provide a sample from home if they are self-isolating due to COVID-19, or not wishing or easily able to attend a healthcare setting.

genoSCORE-LAB is a genetic test, that analyses patient genotypes generated from an array of over 100,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms – common genetic variations - that are associated with, or protective against, the risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease.


genoTOR™ characterises an individual’s genetic profile linked to mTOR-regulated signalling pathways, mechanisms known to affect the risk of Alzheimer's and dementia. It is now widely accepted that the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease involves defects in cell cycle regulation.  Many cellular processes are controlled by the mTOR pathway and differentially expressed mTOR pathway genes may regulate key functions linked to Alzheimer’s disease.

genoTOR™calculates a SNP burden score for 21 different pathways associated with mTOR, providing insight into Alzheimer's disease subjects who phenotypically show similar symptoms, but genotypically may be quite different.

For developers of new Alzheimer’s therapies targeting this pathway, genoTOR™ enables a better understanding of the genetics at an m-TOR related pathway level with a view to identifying patients that may be best suited for enrolment in to clinical trials of based on drug mechanism of action.